Bailey, Rebecca, Ed.D. 1998, University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Dissertation. “An Investigation of Personality Types of Adolescents Who Have Been Rated by Classroom Teachers to Exhibit Inattentive and/or Hyperactive-Impulse Behaviors.”

Findings of the study demonstrated statistically significant differences between student personality designations and the inattentive and hyperactive-impulse subscales. The combined findings suggest there were personality characteristics within a student’s personality that would predispose him or her toward exhibiting what were perceived by teachers as inattentive and/or hyperactive-impulsive behaviors. Implications and recommendations were suggested for student assignment, for professional development of staff, and for related administrative considerations. The most compelling finding was that miscommunication between teachers and students due to a difference in personality type may be the reason many students are referred for and consequently labeled with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This raises questions about the learning environment, the need to medicate students, and the utility of labels.

Bradley, Dianne, Ph.D. and Smith, Kathryn, Ed.D., 1999, September. “The Process Communication Model: An Effective Tool To Motivate All Students”. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, “Classroom Leadership Online”, Vol 3, Number 1.

Found that when teachers individualize instruction by including motivators for each six personality types in every lesson, students learn more, faster and disruptive behaviors disappear or are significantly reduced. Provides suggestions to educators of ways they can stretch to reach every student.

Carpenter, Craig, Ed.D.,1994, Arizona State University. Dissertation. “Depressed Children: Brief Intervention Strategies for Teachers.”

Found PCM to be a valuable model for teachers in the understanding of and brief interventions with Reactor personality type depressed children.

Donlan, Ryan, Ed.D., 2009, Central Michigan University. Dissertation., An Investigation of the Relationship between Michigan Charter School Leaders’ Personality Strengths and the Schools’ Performance Indicators Under Education Yes!.

Found that a statistically significant, moderate negative correlation existed between Workaholic strength of personality in school leaders and their schools’ Overall School Performance Indicator scores in the accreditation system as reflected through Michigan’s School Improvement Framework. Thus, leaders with stronger Workaholic strength of personality may adversely affect a school’s school improvement efforts. Also, the study found that base personality types of charter school leaders were not substantially different than other educators found in Gilbert’s (2005) research, yet phase personalities revealed a notable difference. Further, moderate, yet statistically significant negative correlations were found to exist between Workaholic strength of personality and three different strand areas of Michigan School Improvement – those of Teaching for Learning, Personnel and Professional Learning, and Data and Information Management. Yet, with respect to this finding, the research is not pointing to a direct correlate between a Workaholic strength of personality and that leader’s adeptness with data; it is pointing to a correlation between Workaholic strength of personality and certain things that leaders do with the data, including but not limited to dialoguing about data, collaborating with others regarding data, engaging in conversation with other people about school-wide information, and creating a certain degree of safety in discussions concerning data.

Eyers, Christina, Ed.D., 2009, Central Michigan University. Dissertation., Personality Patterns of NCAA Wrestlers and their Relationship to Disordered Eating: Implication for Educational Leaders.

Found that the independent variables of NCAA Division level, weight category, personality strength, and current psychological need did not have a relationship with eating disorder risk. However, when accounting for the independent variables of NCAA Division level, weight category, and current psychological need, personality strength (p < .05) had a moderating effect on eating disorder risk. Furthermore, when controlling for the independent variables of weight category, personality strength, and current psychological need, NCAA Division level indicated a mild trend toward significance (p < .1) with eating disorder risk. Due to the trend towards significance of personality strength with the relationship between NCAA Division level and eating disorder risk (p < .1), it was determined that personality strength had a moderating effect on NCAA Division level and eating disorder risk. Thought and belief oriented personality strengths represented 56.8% of the participants in this study.

Francisco, Mark, Ed.D., 2005, Central Michigan University. Dissertation., An investigation of the relationship between administrator personality and teacher job satisfaction from a sample of Michigan k-12 public schools.

Found that public school administrators who had experienced a phase change in their personality condominium were more likely to have happy staff members, likely enabling them to accept differences in personalities more readily. Antidotal but not empirically supported evidence suggested that divorced administrators may have more happy staff members, possibly due to their own phase shift as a result of their personal crisis. This was a surprise in the findings that has not yet been fully explored.

Gilbert, Michel, Ed.D., 1999. “Why Educators Have Problems with Some Students: Understanding Frames Of Preference.” Journal of Educational Administration, 37.

Found that educators are predominantly Reactor, Workaholic, and Persister personality types, who demonstrate little potential to interact with the three other personality types (Dreamers, Rebel, and Promoter), that comprise 35% of the general (student) population.

Gilbert, Michael, Ed.D., 1994, (Unpublished off-campus duty assignment report, University of Arkansas at Little Rock). “Meeting the Needs of Students Can Promote Success.”

Found that there was a significant correlation between the interaction energy (similarity in Personality types of teacher and student) and the performance grades of the students.

Gilbert, Michael, Ed.D., 1992. “Dreamers, Rebels, and Others: Personality Styles Affect Communication,” Executive Educator.

Reported the results of PCM training in the Apache Junction school district over a three year period:

  • the district reduced employee turnover from 43% to less than 3% (in spite of the fact that the district offered lower salaries than in neighboring districts)
  • student achievement in every grade increased dramatically failure rate in grades seven and eight dropped from 20% to less than 2%
  • the need for student discipline dropped substantially
  • graduation rates increased
  • the percentage of students going on to college or some other kind of postsecondary training increased from 19% to more than 43%
  • employee satisfaction and morale reached an all time high
  • parents and students grew increasingly satisfied with school
  • William Wright was given the Superintendent of the Year Award for implementing PCM


Hall, Gavin R., 1995, Leeds University, London, England. Dissertation. “The Process Communication Model of Humanistic Psychology as a Rehearsal Aid in the Creation of Character and Character Interaction.”

Found that the following elements of the PCM valuable to writers, directors, and actors: a knowledge of the psychological needs of personality type gives an actor a solid foundation of what drives the character; personality parts (a.k.a., ego states) creates a more subtle and interesting relationship between characters; channels of communication (a.k.a., transaction) enable actors to communicate the text in greater depth and understanding to the audience; a PCM textual analysis allows a director to come to a first rehearsal with a full picture of the world of the play, the elements of the characters, and the relationship to each other and the message of the play.

Hawking, Nancy, Ed.D., 1995, University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Dissertation. “A Study of the Impact on Student Achievement by Teachers Training in Process Communication.”

Found that teachers trained in Process Communication positively affect student performance through understanding different student personality type needs and preferences.

Hopewell, Sylvester, Ed.D., 1997, “Targeted Outreach Delinquency Prevention Program Assessment,” paper submitted to the Boys & Girls Clubs of Metro Atlanta. Research funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance #4 Grant.

Found that children in the Boys & Girls Clubs who were exposed to the Kahler PCM program had an enhanced self-concept and greater self esteem. Also, there was overall improvement in morale and camaraderie, an increased involvement in activities, and a desire for recognition for accomplishment.

Johnston, Richard, M.A., 1997, McGregor School of Antioch University. Thesis. “The Value of the Process Communication Model to a Mediator.”

Found that the PCM model allowed the mediator to be in a better position to assess the people negotiating; helped the mediator to identify how each negotiator views their world, understand what preferences each has for interacting with their world, recognize each negotiator’s probable distress levels, and motivate each negotiator to behave more in their non-distress way, thus helping to increase each participant’s level of clear thinking and good engagement in [completing] the mediation process. The PCM also offers the mediator valuable information on what “not” to say or do, and then what and how to say the “best” thing to each negotiator. Furthermore the mediator can use this model to monitor himself/herself for insight into self behavior and a template for making self management decisions.

Kahler, Taibi, Ph.D., 1982, “Personality Pattern Inventory Validation Studies.” Kahler Communications, Inc.

Found in the 1972 study correlation between driver behaviors and scripts, ego states, injunctions, games, rackets, life positions, myths, and psychological needs.
Found in the 1982 study significant correlation between base and phase distress patterns and scripts, injunctions, myths, games, rackets, life positions, and psychological needs, as well as personality type correlation with character strengths, transactions (channels), perceptions, management styles, environment preferences and compatibility spans.

Kahler, Taibi, Ph.D., 1972, Purdue University. Dissertation. “Predicting Academic Underachievement in Ninth and Twelfth Grade Males with the Kahler Transactional Analysis Script Checklist.”

Found correlations between the T.A. checklist items and underachievers, suggesting further research in comparing a “Stupid” criterion and underachieving.

Knaupp, Jon, Ph.D., Arizona State University (Unpublished paper). “Preservice Teachers’ Ranking of Personality Characteristics Preferred by Primary Students, Middle School Students, Parents and Administrators”.

Found that teachers and students who have differing personality structures will have more miscommunication, and the resulting negative coping strategies will be used by both the teacher and student are predictable as a function of their personality typing in PCM.

Martin, Sue. 1996, University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Dissertation (Research in progress). “A Study of the Behavior Causes of Miscommunication in Arkansas Elementary Public School Students.”

Found that there is a statistically significant difference in teachers reading and understanding their own personality profiles, and planning for student differences improved student behaviors.

Mlinarcik, John, Ph.D., 1990, The Fielding Institute. Dissertation . “Alcoholic Personality Types Revisited a la Kahler’s Process Communication.”

Found that Reactive, Type II alcoholics had significantly lower mean Workaholic scores than the matched, nonalcoholic comparison subjects. Results support the movement favoring etiological theories that certain personality and psychological facts may lead to the development of Type II, “Process Reactive Alcoholism.”

Nash, Barbara, Ph.D., 1984,Western Michigan University. Dissertation “Process Therapy: A Reliability and Validity Study”.

Found that Process Therapy could be a useful and practical model for diagnosis and treatment.

Shcolnik, Bonnie, Ph.D., 1987,The Fielding Institute. Dissertation. “The Process Communication Model Concept of Developmental Processes: The Effects of Phase Development in Husbands on Marital Satisfaction of Wives.”

Found that PCM was a useful model for understanding how people might interact in a marital relationship: PCM can predict accurately that a certain personality type and phase individual would experience in a relationship with someone who is a different personality type or phase. Also results point out clearly that PCM is useful in predicting how people will communicate and whether or not specific psychological needs will be issues for them in a relationship.

Spencer, Bradford, Ph.D., Fisler, Sandra, MBA, (unpublished) “A Correlation of Dominant Motives and Base Personality Types from the PPI.”

A sample of 408 TAT’s and PPI were correlated to determine if a correlation between above the norm Motives (from David McClelland, Ph.D. of Harvard) and base personality types exists. A correlation <.05 exists between Need for Affiliation and Reactor, between Need for Power and Persister and Need for Achievement and both Workaholic and Persister. There were not enough base Promoter, Rebel or Dreamer types in the sample to draw a statistically valid conclusion with the confidence desired. It was hypothesized the connection is in the subconscious thought process that scores for imagery and the unconscious driver thought process.

Stansbury, Pat, 1990. “Child Abuser Study,” (funded by Taibi Kahler Associates and SCAN America).

Found that the PCM predicts child abuser personality structures at 78.2% (with 6.2% false negative and 15.6% false positive).

Stansbury, Pat, 1990. “Myers-Briggs/Personality Pattern Inventory Research”, (funded by NASA).

Found that a cross predictive correlation between base personality types and certain Myers -Briggs typologies. Concluded that the PPI is far more pragmatic and utilizable because of “phase” – identification of psychological need motivators and predictability of distress patterns. Also concluded the value of PCM included immediate intervention strategy capabilities.

Stansbury, Pat, 1990. “Report of Adherence to Theory discovered when the Personality Pattern Inventory was administered to Subjects Twice,” (funded by Kahler Communications).

Found 85.2% adherence to Phase theory and condominium order in test-retesting over time.

Thompson, Jon, Ed.D., 2006, Central Michigan University. Dissertation., Adapting the Process Communication Model® for Higher Education Writing.

Found that teachers and students who have differing personality structures will have more miscommunication, and that the resulting negative coping strategies that will be used by both the teacher and student are predictable as a function of their personality typing in PCM.

Wallin, Mark, Ph.D., 1994, Northern Arizona University. Dissertation. “Making the Grade The Effects of Teacher Personality Types on Student Grading Practices.”

Found that a student’s grade is significantly affected by the difference in personality structure between that of the teacher and that of the student.

Weisenbach, Janice L., Ed.D., 2004, Central Michigan University. Dissertation., An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Principal’s Personality And A School’s Organizational Climate In Lutheran Elementary Schools In Michigan.

Found that correlation test results between personality energy and Open climate produced an inverse correlation with Promoter energy. As the principal’s Promoter energy level increased, the openness of the school decreased. School climate scores remained in the Open category; however, they were less Open compared with schools where the principal did not have high Promoter energy.

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